Volume 6, Issue 4, August 2017, Page: 51-62
Collision of Indian Plate and Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone: Some Geological Constraints
Zahid Ali Khan, Directorate of Geology and Mining, Khanij Bhawan, Lucknow, India
Ram Chandra Tewari, Department of Geology, Sri Jai Narain P. G. College, Lucknow, India
Rabindra Nath Hota, Department of Geology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Received: Jul. 26, 2017;       Accepted: Aug. 8, 2017;       Published: Aug. 17, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.earth.20170604.12      View  1603      Downloads  32
Abstract
The occurrence of Gondwana affinity Permo-Carboniferous glacial deposits in northern Tibet, Lhasa Block and Qiangtang Block obviously suggests that India continued into Tibet at that time. Significant also is that paleoclimatic continuity was maintained over landmass of India and Tibet from Paleozoic through the Cenozoic eras up to the Pleistocene. The age and origin of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture (ITS) is doubtful because the ophiolites are about 100 Ma older than the supposed collision. Similarly, the progressive under-thrusting of the Indian plate below the Tibetan plate is deemed unlikely, as the ophiolites must have formed an 8-20 km thick wall between the two plates and it was not possible for the Indian Plate to cross it. Probably the apparent northward migration of India indicates a northward migration of the North Pole. Similarly, there is no explanation for the fact that, if underthrusting has taken place, why did the Himalayan uplift occur some 500 km from the Indus-Tsangpo suture instead of being along the collision zone itself, negate under thrusting. The double thickness of the crust in Tibet is not a unique feature in that it continues south of the so-called Indus-Tsangpo suture, as also in the Pamir; it is of about the same order in the Andes. Whereas the Tibetan glacial indicate that India and Tibet were not separated in the Carboniferous, Lystrosaurus fauna suggests it for the Lower Triassic and the ophiolites for the Jurassic-Cretaceous. The development of rift valleys and normal faults cutting across the Indus-Tsangpo suture (ITS) shows that even in the Quaternary India and Tibet was together. Indeed, the measured Cambrian diameter is 50% of the Earth where as in Upper Permian it was about 55-60% with the North Pole near Verkhoyansk and the South Pole to the southeast of South Africa. Evidently the Earth is expanding and the rate of expansion has progressively accelerated through time is supported by decline in the gravitational constant from about one third to about one half of the present from Precambrian up to Mesozoic.
Keywords
Tibetan Glacial Deposits, Indus-Tsangpo Suture, Plate Tectonics, Polar Wandering, Paleopole, Paleogravity and Earth Expansion
To cite this article
Zahid Ali Khan, Ram Chandra Tewari, Rabindra Nath Hota, Collision of Indian Plate and Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone: Some Geological Constraints, Earth Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2017, pp. 51-62. doi: 10.11648/j.earth.20170604.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Du Toit, A. L., 1937. Our Wandering Continents. Oliver Boyd, 377p.
[2]
Ahmad, F., 1960. Glaciations’ and Gondwanaland. Rec. Geol. Surv. India. 86, 651-674.
[3]
Han Tonglin and Wang Naiwen, 1983. Carboniferous glacial marine deposits in northern Xizang. Bull. Chinese Acad. Geol. Sci., (Abstract), 47-48.
[4]
Hongfu Yin, 1994. The paleobiogeography of China. Oxford Univ. Press, 370p.
[5]
Xiaochi, J., 2002. Permo-Carboniferous sequences of Gondwanic affinity in southwest China and their paleogeographic implications. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., 20, 633-646.
[6]
Meyerhoff, A. A., Kamen Kaye, M., Chin Chen, Tanner, I., 2012. China-Stratigraphy, Paleogeography and tectonics. Springer Geosciences, 188p.
[7]
Chang, Chengfa and 24 Others. 1986. Preliminary conclusions of the Royal Society and Academia Sinicia 1985 Geo-traverses of Tibet. Nature, 323, 501-507.
[8]
Shenglong, L., and 4 Others. 2015. Age of the Purported Zhanjiang Formation in Gerze County, Tibet: A new understanding and its significance. Acta Geologica Sinica, 89, 1673-1789.
[9]
Dewey, J. F., Shackleton, R. M. Chang Chengfa and SunYiyin. 1988. The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan plateau. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London, 327, 379-413.
[10]
Casshyap, S. M., Tewari, R. C. and Srivastava, V. K., 1993. Origin and evolution of intracratonic Gondwana basins of India and their depositional limits in relation to Narmada-Son lineament. In: Rifted basins and Aulocogens: Geological and Geophysical Approach. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, 200-214.
[11]
Sun Dong-Li, 1993. On the Permian biogeographic boundaries between Gondwana and Eurasia in Tibet, China as the eastern section of Tethys. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 100, 59-77.
[12]
Upadhyay, R., and 6 Others. 1999. Discovery of Gondwana plant fossils and palynomorphs of Late Asselian (Early Permian) age in the Karakoram Block. Terra Nova, 11, 278-283.
[13]
Haung Jiqing, 1984. Preliminary analysis of the Tethys-Himalaya tectonic domain. Acta Geologica Sinica, 1, 2-17.
[14]
Tapponnier, P., Mercier, J. C. and Proust, F., 1981. The Tibetan side of India-Eurasia collision. Nature, 294, 405-410.
[15]
Acharyya, S. K., 1990. Pan-Indian Gondwana plate breaks up and evolution of the northern and eastern collision margins of the Indian Plate. Jour. Himalayan Geology, 1, 75-92.
[16]
Allegre, C. J. and 34 Others. 1984. Structure and evolution of the Himalayan Tibet orogenic belt. Nature, 307, 17-22.
[17]
Wang, J. G., and 6 Others. 2016. Upper Triassic turbidities of the northern Tethyan Himalaya: the terminal of a sediment routing system sourced in the Gondwanide Orogen. Gondwana Research, 34, 84-98.
[18]
Ahmad, F. and Khan, Z. A., 1993. Marine incursions in Gondwana Supergroup in Central India. Gondwana Geological Magazine, Special volume, 1-7.
[19]
Veevers, J. J. and Tewari, R. C., 1995. Gondwana master basin of Peninsular India in between Tethys and Interior of Gondwanaland Province of Pangaea. Mem. Geol. Soc. America No. 187, 72p.
[20]
Najman, Y., and 9 others. 2010. Timing of India-Asia collision: Geological, biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic constraints. Jour. Geophysical Research, 115, 1978-2012.
[21]
Jain, A. K., and 9 others. 2012. Evolution of the Himalaya. Proceedings Indian National Science Academy, 78, 259-275.
[22]
Hu, X., and 5 others. 2016. The timing of India-Asia collision onset – Fact, theories, controversies. Earth Science Review, 160, 264-299.
[23]
Liang Rixuan and Bai Wanji, 1984. Genesis of ultramafic rocks in Yarlung-Zhangbo ophiolitic belt. Inter. Sym. Himalayan Geol., (Abstract), 117-118.
[24]
Bai, W. J., and 8 Others. 2000. The PGE and base metal alloys in the podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet. Canadian Mineralogist, 38, 585-298.
[25]
Deng Wanming, 1980. Trace element geochemistry of the ophiolites complex in Xigaze (Tibet). Sino-French Coop. Investigation of Himalaya. (Abstract), 236-237.
[26]
Chang, Chengfa and Chen, Hsi-lan, 1983. Some tectonic features of the Mt. Jolmo-Lungma area, southern Tibet, China. Sci. Sinicia, 16, 257-265.
[27]
Raiverman, R., 2002. Foreland sedimentation in Himalayan tectonic regimen: A relook at the orogenic process. BSMPS Publ., New Delhi, 378p.
[28]
Xiao Xuchang, 1980. The Xigaze ophiolite of southern Xizang (Tibet) and its relevant tectonic problems. Sino-French Coop. Investigation Himalaya, 164-168.
[29]
Yin, J. Deng, W. Wen, S. and Sun, D., 1998. Pre-Jurassic tectonic evolution of the intermediate transitional blocks of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and adjacent areas. In: Pan, Y. and Kong, X (Eds). Lithosphere structure, Evolution and Dynamics of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Guangdong Science & technology Press, 217-232.
[30]
Klootwijk, C. J., 1987. Greater India’s northern margin – paleomagnetic evidence for large scale continental subduction. Proc. Inter. Symp., Shallow Tethys 2 (Abstract), 259.
[31]
Radhakrishmurty, C., and Subbarao, K. V., 1990. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of the Deccan Traps. Proc. Ind. National Science Academy, 99, 669-680.
[32]
Verma, R. K., and Hari Narain, 2013. Paleomagnetic studies of Indian rocks and continental drift. In: Knopoff, L. Drake, C. L. and Hart, P. J. (Eds.). The Crust and Upper mantle of the Pacific area, 189-197.
[33]
Molnar, P., 2016. The Paleoposition of India. Jour. Southeast Asian Earth Science, 1, 145-189.
[34]
Ahmad, F., 1981. Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic paleogeography of the Tethys region. In: Carey, S. W. (Ed), Expanding Earth Symposium, University Tasmania, Sydney, 131-145.
[35]
Kapoor, H. M., and Maheshwari, H. K., 1991. Early Permian paleogeography of the Peri-Gondwana in the Indian Segment. Current Science, 61, 648-653.
[36]
Crawford, A. R., 1979. A Greater Gondwanaland. Science, 184, 1179-1181.
[37]
Kumar, S., Singh, I. B., and Singh, S. K., 1977. Lithostratigraphy, structure, depositional environment, paleocurrent and trace fossils of the Tethyan sediments of Malla-Johar area, Pithoragarh-Chamoli Dist. U. P. Jour. Paleontology Soc. India, 20, 396-435.
[38]
Colchen, M., 1975. Paleogeography and structural evolution of the Tibetan area of Nepal Himalayas. Himalayan Geol., 5, 83-103.
[39]
Garzione, C. N., Dettman, D. L., Quade, J., De Calles, P. G. and Butter, R. F., 2000. High times on the Tibetan plateau: Paleo-elevation of the Thakkhola Graben, Nepal. Geology, 28, 339-342.
[40]
Zhao, W. J. and Nelson, K. D., 1993. Deep seismic reflection evidence for continental underthrusting beneath the southern Tibet. Nature, 366, 557-559.
[41]
Shin, Y. H., and 4 others. 2009. Moho undulations beneath Tibet from GRACE- integrated gravity data. Intern. Jour. Geophysics, 170, 971-985.
[42]
Brandon, C. and Romanowicz, B., 1986. A ‘no lid’ zone in the central Charg-Thang platform of Tibet: Evidence from pure path phase velocity measurements of long period Rayleigh wave. Jour. Geophy. Research, 91, 6547-6564.
[43]
Khan, Z. A. and Tewari, R. C., 2016a. The facts and fictions of the oceanic Tethys concept. Jour. Geosciences, 1, 12-41.
[44]
Cosgriff, J. W., 1974. Lower Triassic Temnospondyli of Tasmania. Geol. Soc. Amer. Special Paper No. 149. 134p.
[45]
Flynn, J. J. and 6 others 1999. A Triassic fauna from Madagascar, including Early Dinosaurs. Science, v. 286, p. 763-765.
[46]
Rana, R. S. and Wilson, G. P., 2003. New Late Cretaceous mammals from the Intertrappean beds of Rangapur, India and paleobiographic framework. Acta Paleontologica Pol., 48, 331-348.
[47]
Kemp, T. S., 2005. The Origin and Evolution of Mammals. Oxford Unvi. Press, Oxford, 331p.
[48]
Tiwari, R. S., Singh, V., Kumar, S., and Singh, I. B., 1984. Palynological studies of the Tethyan sequence in Malla-Johar area, India. Paleobotanist, 32, 341-367.
[49]
Balme, B. E., 1995. Fossil in situ spores and pollen grains: an annotated catalogue. Review Paleobotany and Palynology, 87, 81-324.
[50]
Shields, O., 1988, Theories of the Earth and Universe: a history of Dogma in the Earth Sciences. Cladistics, 4, 407-412.
[51]
Colbert, E. M., 1979. Gondwana vertebrates In: Laskar, B. and Raja Rao C. S. (eds.) 4th. International Gondwana Symp., Geol. Surv. India, 135-143.
[52]
Fan Yingnian, 1984. Division of zoogeographical provinces by Permo-Carboniferous corals in Xizang (Tibet). Intern. Geol. Symp. Himalaya, 1, 1-2 (abstract).
[53]
Sun Dong-Li, 1993. On the Permian biogeographic boundaries between Gondwana and Eurasia in Tibet, China as the eastern section of Tethys. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 100, 59-77.
[54]
Xiaochi, J. Huang, H. Shi, Y. and Zhan, L., 2011. Lithologic boundaries in Permian post-glacial sediments of the Gondwana affinity regions of China: Typical sections, Age range and correlation. Acta Geologica Sinica, 85, 373-386.
[55]
Sharma, R. K. Gupta, R. K. and Sah, S. C. D., 1980. Discovery of upper Gondwana plants north of Indus Suture Zone, Ladakh. Current Science, 49, 470-471.
[56]
Mathur, Y. K. and Jain, A. K., 1980. Palynology and the age of the Dras Volcanic near Shergol, Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India. Geosciences’ Journal, 1, 55-74.
[57]
Norin, E., 1946. Geological expedition in Western Tibet. Report Sino-Swedish Expedition, Stockholm, 229p.
[58]
Shackleton, R. M. and Chang Chengfa, 1988. Cenozoic uplift and deformation of the Tibetan plateau: the geomorphologic evidence. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London, A327, 365-377.
[59]
Wang, X. Qiu, Z. and Li, Q., 2007. Vertebrate paleontology, Biostratigraphy, chronology and paleo-environment of Qaidam basin in northern Tibet plateau. Plaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, 234, 363-385.
[60]
Valdiya, K. S., 1993. Uplift and geomorphic rejuvenation of the Himalaya in the Quaternary Period. Current Science, 64, 873-885.
[61]
Scalera, G., 2003. The Expanding Earth: some idea for the new millennium. In: G, Scalera and K. H. Jacob (Eds). Why Expanding Earth, Mining Industry Museum, Germany, 181-232.
[62]
Shen, W., and 3 Others, 2015. Evidences of expanding Earth from space-geodetic data over solid land and sea level rise in recent two decades. Geodesy and Geodynamics, 6, 248-252.
[63]
Hurrell, S. W., 2011. Dinosaurs and the Expanding Earth. 3rd. Edition, One-off Publishing Com., Great Britain, 213p.
[64]
Maxlow, J., 2014. On the origin of Continents and Oceans: A paradigm shift in understanding. Terella Press Australia. 260p.
[65]
Carey, S. W., 2000. Earth, Universe and Cosmos. 2nd. Edition, School of Earth Sciences, Hobart, 258p.
[66]
Smith, A. G. and Hallam, A., 1970. The fit of the southern continents. Nature, 225, 139-144.
[67]
Carey, S. W., 1976. The expanding Earth. Elsevier. 488p.
[68]
Scotose, C. R. and Mckerrow, W. S., 1990. Revised world maps and introduction. In: W. S. Mckerrow and C. R. Scotose (Eds). Paleozoic paleogeography and biogeography. Geological Soc. London Mem., 12, 1-21.
[69]
Owen, H. G., 1976. Continental displacement and expansion of the Earth during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London, 281, 223-291.
[70]
Girardeau, J. and 4 Others, 1985. The Xainxa ultramafic rock central Tibet, China: Tectonic and geodynamic environment. Geology, 13, 330-333.
[71]
Xu Baowen, Badengzhu and Zhang Haoyang, 1984. Is the suture zone between the Indian Plate and Eurasian plate in Xizang (Tibet)? Intern. Symp. Himalayan Geol., (Abstract), 48-50.
[72]
Xiao Xuchang, 1980. The Xigaze ophiolite of southern Xizang (Tibet) and its relevant tectonic problems. Sino-French Coop. Investigation Himalaya, 164-168
[73]
Cui Zhuozhou, 1984. Research for formational mechanism of Qinghai-Xizang Tibet plateau. Intern. Symp. Himalayan Geol., (Abstract). 130-131.
[74]
Gopel, C., Allegre, C. J., and Xu, R. H., 1984. Constraints on the origin of two Tibet ophiolites from Pb- isotopes: Intern. Symp. Geol. Himalaya, (Abstract), 2, 2.
[75]
Chatterjee, S. and Hotton, N., 1986. The Paleoposition of India. Jour. Southeast Asian Earth Science. 1, 145-189.
[76]
Rai, J., Upadhyay, R. and Sinha, A. K., 2004. First Late Triassic nannofossils record from Neo-Tethyan sediments of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone, Ladakh Himalaya, India. Current Science, 86, 774-777.
[77]
Scalera, G., 2006. TPW and polar motion as due to asymmetrical Earth expansion. In: G. Lavechia and G, Scalera (Eds). Frontier in Earth Sciences: New ideas and interpretation. Annals Geophysica, 49, 483-500
[78]
Hurrell, S. W., 2012. Global expansion tectonics: A significant challenge for Physics. Proc. N P A, 9, 363-373.
[79]
Hurrell, S. W., 2014. A new method to calculate Paleogravity using fossil feathers. N C G T, Jour., 2, 29-34.
[80]
Maxlow, J., 2016. Is plate tectonic better suited to an increasing radius Earth model? Australian Institute of Geoscientists News, 39-43.
[81]
Cwojdzinski, S., 2016. History of discussion selected aspects of the Earth expansion vs. Plate tectonics theories. Geological Soc. London, Sp. Pub., 442, 42p.
[82]
Khan, Z. A. and Tewari, R. C., 2016. The concept of Gondwanaland and Pangaea: a reappraisal. Jour. Applied Geology and Geophysics, 4, 44-56.
[83]
Khan, Z. A. and Tewari, R. C. and Hota, R. N., 2017. Problem in accepting plate tectonics and subduction as a mechanism of Himalayan evolution. Jour. Applied Geology and Geophysics, 5, 81-100.
Browse journals by subject